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Fake News

This page lists the seven categories of fake news as compiled by Claire Wardle of First Draft News, as well as a handy poster from IFLA that poses questions we should be asking ourselves when we evaluate information.

Seven Categories of Fake News


1. Satire or Parody (no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool)

2. False Connection (when headlines, visuals, or captions don't support the content)

3. Misleading Content (misleading use of information to frame an issue, group, or individual)

4. False Context (when genuine content is shared with false contextual information)

5. Imposter Content (when genuine sources are impersonated with false, made-up sources)

6. Manipulated Content (when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive)

7. Fabricated Content (new content that is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm)

(Compiled by Claire Wardle of First Draft News)

How to Spot Fake News

How to Spot Fake News poster

This poster was produced by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA). Visit this page to download a copy to print or share.  IFLA has also made the poster available in many different languages.